Vines

The soil and the varieties of Bairrada

The soils are predominantly Bairrada wavy with smooth slopes that descend from the mountains and Caramulo Bussaco up to the sands of the coast. Therefore they are exposed to Atlantic influences, benefiting from good soil and climatic conditions, which give them days with average high temperatures and cool nights and humid during maturation of the grapes.

Soils best suited to vineyards in Bairrada types are "clay", or clay soils with greater or lesser amount of limestone, creating the best grapes for wines of superior quality. Crossed by a network of small rivers, the Cértima, the Levira, the Águeda, the Boco and Varziela, the region comprises a series of varied terrain ranging from Triassic to Plio-Pleistocene, through the Jurassic lower, middle and sandstones.

Castes, in the tradition of the region, the most characteristic is the Berry, but others are also excellent as those present highlighted. They are also used, to a lesser extent, other varieties recommended and authorized the production of wines from traditional Bairrada.

In red and rosé wines have castes, Alfrocheiro-Black, Baga, Bastardo, Jean, Cabernet Sauvignon, Castelao, Syrah, Merlot, Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz. For white wines have the caste Arinto, Bical, Cercial, Cercialinho, Chardonnay, Rabo de Ovelha and Fernão Pires (Maria Gomes).
 
 
 
Black Grapes
 
 

Alfrocheiro-Black
 
 

Source
Is not mentioned by the authors who have studied the varieties of national accord in early twentieth century. At that time, the designation Alfrocheiro was linked to a white grape variety grown in the Dão and that today is known as Douradinha. That variety also holds the designation of the Douro Alfrocheiro White.
Alfrocheiro The ink is therefore a relatively recent designation (after 1909), but is now cultivated in Bairrada, Ribatejo, and especially in the Alentejo Dão, where it is more representative.
The recent origin of this name makes us think that this variety had in the past or the other option, then, is originally from another country. The fact that this variety is also known as Paint French Viseu (Pereira and Duarte, 1986), may indicate their possible geographic origin? Up to now, and although this variety is represented in collections from other countries ampelographic wine, nomeadademente Ampelographic in the collection of France, located in the "Domaine de Vassal", near Montpellier, he was not detected any synonymy with foreign varieties.
Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with crimson edge of medium intensity and high density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf green white, with an average density of prostrate hairs on the underside.
Hermaphrodite flowers.
Shoots slightly streaked with green buds with red and low intensity anthocyanin.
Adult leaf of medium size, orbicular, sub-three lobes; limbo of medium green to dark, drip, little bullous main veins with weak intensity anthocyanin until the 1st branch, the underside with an average density of hair prostrate; teeth short and convex ; petiole sinus with lobes slightly overlapping, V, V open in lateral sinus.
Bunch small, conical, winged and compact.
Bago rounded, small, blue-black, thick film medium and soft flesh.
Sarmento tan.

Behavior
Bud: Early one day after the 'Castelão'.
Flowering: Early after 3 days 'Castelão'.
Painter: Early four days before the "Castelão".
Maturation: Early one week before the "Castelão".
Caste vigorous. Good fertility (1.5 clusters / release). Constant production.
Erect, imbrincado.
Very sensitive to escoriose and rot.
It has the disadvantage that in rich land, the grapes rotted. There should therefore be grafted on vigorous rootstocks, on which the grapes rot and the wines are very poor quality.

Variety of half-erect erect, medium vigor and with an average trend for the development of granddaughters. The internode is medium size and is quite regular. Has few and fragile tendrils.
Your bud is premature.
It has high fertility, even in the basal buds, is little affected by desavinho and its production is high and steady. Often presents the second flowering.
Fits any type of pruning. Your rod is of medium hardness. The conduct of the hedge is easy.
It is moderately susceptible to downy mildew, powdery mildew, gray mold and leafhopper. Has some susceptibility to boron deficiency.
It is susceptible to water stress. Under these conditions, the berry is often wrinkled.
The bunch is small, compact, with small and medium-lignified stems. The berries are small, relatively easy deployment and film very thick. The pips are large, well formed and median.
Its average maturity is early.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR STUDIES OF WINE MAKE. REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES CENTER. Vanda Pedroso.

Potential
It produces wines of good quality, since grapes are in good health.
Black Alfrocheiro wines are rich in color, presenting itself as the most stained Dão. Along the Serra da Estrela and the municipality of There, which has better conditions to ripen, it delivers very aromatic wine, fruity and with great verve, thanks to an excellent balance between acid and sugar. In the famous wines of the Center for Wine, enter the proportion of 25% of what is considered the best lot of all, with Touriga Nacional, Jaen and Tinta Pinheira.
The wines have a strong color intensity, are aromatic and excellent balance between acid and sugar.
The musts likely denote a high alcohol content and high acidity.
The wines are rich in color (red to deep purple) with violet tones when new. Provides very aromatic wine, fruity fragrance with vinous, delicate and fine. The taste is also fruity, full bodied, persistent, very much alive thanks to its acidity (balanced). Very good potential for aging, especially when done in new oak wood. It is a multifaceted cast, because they know it is a lot of quality sparkling wines.

Source: www.iniap.pt

Berry

Source
Matias (2003)
The introduction of the Baga Bairrada gives as a result of powdery mildew, this variety is resistant to the fungus.
(Matthias, Goretti, 2003. The ordinary wines from Extremadura in the second half of the nineteenth century. In: Proceedings of the 1st Colloquium of Estremadura Wine, Torres Vedras, 9-36)
Gonçalves (1996)
The coefficient of genotypic variation in yield (CVG to 16.47) lets you take it with a relatively high level of genetic variability. The sub-population Dão (CVG to 27.70) has a higher genetic heterogeneity of income that the sub-population of Bairrada (CVG to 11.32). The average income is higher in clones from Dão and the best and worst clones originate from this region. In sub-population of Bairrada the average yield achieved is slightly lower and their range of variation is much narrower.
The variability of the estimated alcohol level (CVG to 4.77) and total acidity of the wort (CVG 3.40) are reasonable. In the case of probable alcohol level, the genetic variability is higher in clones from Bairrada (CVG of 5.30, while the clones of CVG They have a 2.80). The average value does not vary much between the two sub-populations, respectively, 9.28 g / l and 9.10 g / l in Bairrada and Dão. As for the total acidity of the wine, there are very substantial differences in variability between the two sub-populations.
(Gonçalves, 1996)
Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with the margins slightly carmine and high density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf green with tan areas, the underside with a high density of prostrate hairs.
Flower: Hermaphrodite
Shoots streaked with red, medium intensity of anthocyanin buds.
Adult leaf of medium size, pentagonal, with five lobes; limbo medium to dark green, slightly revolute, weak blistering, page bottom with high density of prostrate hairs, velvety, with the main veins sparsely placed laterally erect hair, teeth short and convex, slightly open petiolar sinus, with the base V, lateral sinus closed in U.
Bunch medium, conical, compact, medium length stems.
Bago rounded, medium-and black-blue, film thickness, soft flesh.
Sarmento dark brown.

Behavior
Bud: Mid season, 10 days after the "Castelão".
Flowering: Mid season, six days after the "Castelão".
Painter: Mid season, two days after the "Castelão".
Maturation: Late, after two weeks 'Castelão'.
More prostrate habit. High vigor. High productivity.
Less sensitive to mildew.
Sensitive to rot in some years.
Vigorous, abundant production, making low-alcohol wines, acids and quality "current." Abrolhos evil. Sensitive to rot in some years.
Late ripening grape, wines with alcohol levels vary widely, dependent on weather conditions of September to be more favorable or less to maturity.

Potential
It is a late variety, producing acids of musts and wines with alcohol levels vary widely, dependent on weather conditions of September to be more favorable or less to maturity. The wines are rich in tannins, and supporting aging.

Source: www.iniap.pt

Bastard

Caste very fertile, very ripe preococe. Requires land funds and not too hot and dry. Resistant to mildew but susceptible to rot. The wines are very low in acidity and sugar.

Source: Station-DRAPCentro Bairrada Wine

Cabernet Sauvignon

Yield:
Caste very productive moderately productive.
Maturation:
Late. A week after the Castellan.
Sensitivity to disease:
Insensitive to rot.
Sensitive Escoriose, the Eutipiose and mildew.
Bunch:
Prequeno medium, conical, sometimes winged. Medium compactness.
Berry:
Small and rounded.
Film:
Blue-black and thick.
Pulp:
Colour: not flushed.
Consistency: Medium.
Peculiarities of taste: Astringent.
Enological interest:
Cabernet Sauvignon wines have enough color and varietal characteristics are very pronounced. Suitable for wine grape guard, due to its high tannin content. Fits well with a lot softer varieties.
Source: www.iniap.pt

Castelão
 
 

Source
João de Santarém, in the labeling of VQPRD Ribatejo Santarém sub-region.
Periquita in labeling as a point-A of Article 17 of Reg (EEC) No 3201/90, with the wording of Reg (EC) No 609/97.
The genetic variability of income (CVG to 13.66) begins to be limited. The greater genetic heterogeneity is in the Alentejo (CVG to 15.69). The clones from the Ribatejo region are genetically more homogeneous (CVG 2.88), leaving the clones from the region of Setubal, although with greater variability, far from the regions of Alentejo and West.
Gonçalves, Elsa M.F., 1996. Genetic variability Old Vine Grapes, 76p. End of Course Report, I.S.A., Lisbon.

Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with the margins slightly carmine and high density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf yellowish underside with dense prostrate hairs.
Flower: Hermaphrodite
Shoots green, with green buds.
Adult leaf of medium size, pentagonal, with five lobes, medium green leaf blade, irregular, moderately bullous underside with dense prostrate hairs, teeth medium and convex, slightly open petiolar sinus, with the base in key, opened in lateral sinus V.
Bunch medium, conical-winged, compact, short stalk.
Bago rounded, medium-and black-blue, film moderately thick, firm flesh.
Sarmento yellow.

Behavior
The caste-Castelão is considered the benchmark for the growth stages of grape varieties.
Bud: Early.
Flowering: Early.
Painter: Mid season.
Maturation: Mid season.
Erect. Vigorous. Good productivity. Tendency to surf multiple.
Sensitive desavinho.
Very sensitive to rot in the maturation period. When flowering is sensitive to rot, which attacks the stalk of the bunch.
Less sensitive to mildew.
Very versatile, adapts well to wetlands.
Casta this early, adaptable to various soil and climatic conditions, but thanks to medium soils with low fertility to express all their potential enological. Found in podzols of the Peninsula of Setúbal your solar excellence.
Potassium demanding and sensitive to excess nitrogen, which promotes desavinho. Sensitivity to desavinho is a feature of caste which is narrowing too much the use of plant materials (forks) from mass selection of Clones (piloclonal) and rational fertilization practices.
Extremadura was traditionally pruned to stick, but recently, with the increasing introduction of selected materials, there is widespread use of short pruning, with considerable improvements in quality.
Displays sized semi-erect, green pruning is needed and thanks management practices that will increase aeration, especially during flowering.
Very sensitive to traces of grape.
Sensitive to diseases of the wood.

CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

Potential
The color and alcohol content of wine is reasonable.
Is usually a lot of variety, but the wine-growing region of Palmela, produces well structured wines elementary-rich primary aromas when young, soft and alcoholic.
CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

Selection
It has certified clones.
(National Network of selection of the Vine)

Castelao T, clone 29 EAN:
Very good yield with high alcohol content, total acidity and high average oil content of the color. High enological potential, which is based on the quality of its flavor profile and in distinguishing taste and persistence of wines.

Castelao T, clone 30 EAN:
Average income, with a good balance of qualities.

Castelao T, clone 31 EAN:
Very good performance, with good alcohol content and acidity. High oil content of the color. Quite high enological potential, which manifests itself by distinguishing its aromatic profile and the complexity and persistence of wines taste.

Castelao T, clone 32 EAN:
Good income, with average alcohol content, total acidity and high average oil content of the color.

Castelao T, clone 33 EAN:
Good performance, high alcohol, high acidity and high oil content of the color. Good oenological potential, which translates the organoleptic quality of the profile, both in terms in terms aromatic taste.

Source: www.iniap.pt

Jaen

Source
Cultivated in the region of Bierzo (Spain) with the name of Mencia.
The variability of performance indicators, obtained in the work of selection, the population of Nelas (CVG 7.15), consisting of only clones They were low, indicating a very recent establishment of the caste in the region of culture prospected . Under these conditions the results pointed in the sense that the people of Jaen estabelecidano They are of recent formation.
Were not known, until recently, any relations synonymous with other domestic and foreign varieties, but the indicators of genetic variability of income were incompatible with the establishment of caste Some distant in the region. The hypothesis has been imported from abroad in the recent past has become the only plausible one, reinforced by the fact that, in texts prior to the beginning of the century, does not appear referenced in Portuguese wine-growing regions. In these circumstances, it was systematically sought in Spain was found in 1994 in the Bierzo region, the community of Castilla-Leon, near Galicia, where it is called Tinta Mencia.
It was started based on a selection clones prospected in Dão and Spain, and installed a field test Magualde. The genotypic coefficient of variation of income, the population of Magualde (CVG to 20.97), suffered a sharp increase, allowing to consider - it with a relatively high level of genetic variability.
Thus, this variety is not unique to the Dão region, but is also cultivated in northwestern Spain, in Galicia and Castilla-Leon community, which is the basis of the red wines of the appellation of origin "Bierzo".
Gonçalves, Elsa M.F., 1996. Genetic variability Old Vine Grapes, 76p. End of Course Report, I.S.A., Lisbon.
According to the Spanish Ministry de Fomento (1911) was introduced after the phylloxera in Asturias, and is greatly expanded in the border regions. Santos-Solla (1992) argues that reached the district of Boat Valdeorras (Ourense) filoxérica before the invasion in 1880 and 1884 and already cultivated in the province of Lugo. About this variety there is much controversy on both its mysterious origin (before the phylloxera does not appear cited in any site), as the synonym that you assign to identify it with Cabernet Franc '(Santos-Solla, 1992) which is flatly false. We should also add that there are many opinions about the coincident existence of several "Mencia" (Mencia, mentions, Mencia leg partridge, ...), some of which we have seen and where we can effectively demonstrate that clear differences were observed between these two zones , particularly in terms of the bunch.

Comenge (1942) includes it in Section I (folie lohates nudis sinuata), Gens X Vivaceae (X Clan Jamie); give his name or Exilis Mencia and describes it as having branches blanquecinos. Leaves as Garnacha. Bunches for torches, cylindrical and winged; rachis green with slight violet tablet (small), short stems, ...

Martínez, M.C., J. E. Pérez, 1999. La vid en el occidente del principality of Asturias. Description Ampelographic varieties of them. 101p. Scientific Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, Madrid.

Cultivated in the region of Bierzo (Spain) with the name of Mencia.

Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with crimson and generalized weakness, void density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf green, underside glabrous.
Hermaphrodite flowers.
Shoots green, with green buds.
Adult leaf small, pentagonal, with five lobes, medium green leaf blade, irregular, smooth, underside glabrous, teeth medium and convex; open petiolar sinus, with the base V, lateral sinus open in V.
Bunch medium, conical, compact, medium length stems.
Bago rounded, medium-and blue-black, medium-thick film, soft flesh.
Sarmento yellowish brown to dark.
Behavior

Bud: Mid season, nine days after the "Castellan".
Flowering: Mid season, after seven days 'Castelão'.
Painter: Early, five days before the "Castellan".
Maturation: Mid season, simultaneously with the 'Castelão', with low levels of acidity.
Porte semi-erect. Medium vigor. Good and regular productivity.
Little sensitive to water stress and desavinho.
Very sensitive to downy mildew, powdery mildew and rot.

Potential
The alcohol content and color of the wine is average, while the acidity is usually weak.

Source: www.iniap.pt

Merlot

Yield:
Caste high yield. In adverse weather conditions, there is the risk for desavinho.
Maturation:
Early maturation average (slightly earlier than the Castelão).
Sensitivity to disease:
Sensitive to mildew, and the flower cluster, and the leafhopper. Slightly susceptible to rot. Shortly subject to mildew and disease of the wood (escoriose and the like).
Bunch:
Small to medium, cylindrical, sometimes winged, medium compact, short stalk.
Berry:
Berry medium, round.
Film:
Thin, blue-black.
Pulp:
Colour: not flushed.
Consistency: Soft.
Peculiarities of taste: None.
Enological interest:
It has similarities with the wine of Cabernet Sauvignon, not as intense, with softer tannins. In the region of Bordeaux is often a mixture of the two castes.
Allows you to develop full-bodied wines, rich in alcohol and in color, relatively low acidity. The more structured wines can be aged in wood. The aromas are complex and elegant.
In the Bairrada region, where it is permitted for the production of DOC Bairrada, is used to mitigate the harshness of some varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Berry.
Source: www.iniap.pt

Syrah

Yield:
Caste very productive, but to get quality wines, yields should remain low (30 to 40 hl. / ha. - 5 to 6 tons / ha.).
Maturation:
Late, very similar to Cabernet Sauvignon.
Sensitivity to disease:
It is very sensitive to dust mites and gray mold, especially at the end of maturation.
Bunch:
Medium, compact and cylindrical.
Berry:
Small, elliptical to ovoid.
Film:
Blue-black, thin, but tough.
Pulp:
Colour: not flushed.
Consistency: Soft.
Peculiarities of taste: None.
Enological interest:
In satisfactory conditions of production, the wines produced are very stained in a deep red with hints of violets in his youth. The color intensity is always very persistent.
The aromatic potential is very complex, with compound flowers, fruits, spices and animals.
The 'Syrah' produces wines rich in tannins. The rich tannins, the strength and breadth of wines wines make them guard.
Source: www.iniap.pt

Touriga Nacional

Source
The genetic heterogeneity of all the quality characteristics studied is larger, as with income, the clones from the Dao, although this difference in variability is not very relevant. In fact, probable alcohol degree, total acidity and pH of must demonstrate that they have greater variability in this region. Other characteristics such as total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hue and intensity, where genetic variability is already further the genetic heterogeneity is also more pronounced in the Dão region. The same happens when we analyzed the genetic variability of weight and volume of the grapes.
The hypothesis to be originating from Tourigo in the Dão region, is enhanced with the analysis of genetic variability carried out on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics mentioned above. The Dan has always, in all traits, the greater variability Douro, although the difference is not very pronounced, possibly due to the abovementioned reasons of proximity between the two regions.
Gonçalves, Elsa M.F., 1996. Genetic variability Old Vine Grapes, 76p. End of Course Report, I.S.A., Lisbon.
Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with crimson rim and average density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf green with coppery tones, the underside with an average density of prostrate hairs.
Flower: Hermaphrodite
Shoots streaked with red, with slightly reddish buds.
Adult leaf small, pentagonal, with five lobes, medium green leaf blade, flat and bullous; underside with an average density of prostrate hairs and erect hairs, teeth short and straight; open petiolar sinus, V, lateral sinus opened, based on U.
Bunch small, cylinder-conical, moderately compact, medium length stems.
Bago slightly flattened, medium and dark-blue, film thickness, soft flesh.
Sarmento dark brown.

Behavior
Bud: Early 2 days after the "Castellan".
Flowering: Early simultaneously with the "Castellan".
Painter: Mid season, two days after the "Castellan".
Maturation: Mid season, one week after the "Castellan".
Caste very fertile, although it can be very productive (1kg/cepa). Low productivity is due to sensitivity to environmental conditions, as during the fertilization of a flower leads to bad ventilation, too easily, desavinho.
Very vigorous, more prostrate habit of requiring in vineyards wires that is near the second wire (about 25cm) of the first, to prevent the fall of the vines. During flowering the area of ​​the bunches must permenecer airy, with the releases and raised and should not be breaking ground, to avoid a sharp issue of granddaughters who will "close" the plant.

Caste vigorous with a tendency to make many thistles secondary buds and latent form and so many grandchildren that thicken the crown - sometimes dangerously in the area of ​​fruiting. You agree rootstocks low to medium force.
Porte very retombante advises that a support system with dual wire routing and mobile vegetation early and often, along with releases of green pruning parasites.
Enables pruning in short cord royat (unilateral or bilateral) where the beads should not be too short - at least three buds including the crown.
Touriga Nacional grape is a very demanding as to be conducted in the absence of some cultural precepts as excessive force and very dense canopy may be subject to intense desavinho, especially during the cold and wet weather during flowering.
With regard to income and as a result of clonal selection, Touriga Nacional today unveils an acceptable productivity - on average, of between 5-8 tons / ha
Although good adaptation reveals the great diversity of soils, the fertile land and fresh in summer it is not favorable in view of quality. Rather, it is sufficiently rough, supporting a water shortage in summer, except in shallow soils where they may suffer intense exfoliation.
Touriga Nacional reveals no particular sensitivity to all the most common diseases and pests. The shape and the driving force may, however, limit the sensitivity to diseases and pests.
There is, however, a clear sensitivity to escoriose.
CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

Retombante variety of size, vigorous, with great tendency to develop granddaughters. The internode is medium in size and is regular. Displays tendrils strong and plentiful.
The bud is medium.
Has a high fertility, even in the basal buds. It is very susceptible to desavinho. Its production level is moderate to high when using selected materials and appropriate conduction, otherwise it is low.
Fits any type of pruning. The rod is of medium hardness. The conduct of the hedge is difficult.
It is very resistant to mildew, powdery mildew, gray mold, sharpshooter and traces, but is susceptible to escoriose. It is moderately susceptible to magnesium deficiency.
It is susceptible to water stress, often losing the leaves in these conditions.
The bunch is small to medium, slightly compact, with the foot very lignified. The berry is small, stiff and difficult film to highlight and has a lot of pips, herbal in nature.
The average maturity is early.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR STUDIES OF WINE MAKE. REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES CENTER. Vanda Pedroso.

Potential
Must likely with levels of alcohol and acidity medium.
Considered the best variety to produce port wine red.
It gives excellent wines, loaded with color, very aromatic, astringent, with intense fruity. These wines are on guard, demanding technology that can make them drinkable after a few years. Aging the best Touriga Franca.

It is a caste in terms of consistent quality of wine that originates, a little for all domestic and wine-growing regions over the years.
It is capable of producing wines of high quality elementary, being alcoholic, rich in phenolic substances - with fine aromas, complex and often floral (violet).
CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

The musts likely have a very high alcohol content and high acidity, very balanced.
Gives intense deep purple wine color with violet tones when new. The aroma is also very intense ripe black fruit, with something wild, wild (blackberries, rosemary, lavender, pine needles, rock rose, etc.).. In the mouth it is full bodied, persistent, robust, tannic, very fruity when young. It has high potential for long aging, getting at that time, a style, an unmistakable aroma and velvety taste. When aged in new oak wood quality, their growth is faster, giving it greater complexity, although it continues to patent always, the "feel" of the original cast.
CONTRIBUTION OF THE CENTER FOR STUDIES OF WINE MAKE. REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES CENTER. Vanda Pedroso
 

White Grapes

Arinto

Source
Known for Pedernã in the region of Entre-Douro and Minho.
The coefficient of genotypic variation in yield (CVG to 32.28) allows to consider it genetically heterogeneous and complete its culture from one Some distant past in their wine-growing regions, which have a certain traditionalism. According to the analysis of quantitative genetics has made the sub-populations in cultivated areas of the West, Ribatejo, Vinho Verde, Bairrada and Lafões are distinct, and the variability of income and on the average value. In the West region is located greater genotypic variability of income (CVG to 35.09) and lower average income (1.07 kg / vine) and there is a greater genetic homogeneity (CVG to 14.69) in the sub-population Lafões.
This result is a suggestion in the sense that the variety has been established and followed an evolutionary path longer in the region of the West, and expanded later to other parts of their culture. The sub-populations of Ribatejo (CVG to 29.93), Vinho Verde (CVG to 25.89) and Bairrada (CVG to 22.11) appear to us, respectively, with indicators of lower variability compared to those seen in the West. In sub-population of the greater genetic homogeneity Lafões becomes evident, suggesting that this region has been the variety introduced in the recent past. It is noteworthy that, despite having less variability, the regions of Bairrada Lafões and have a higher average yield (1.55 kg / 1.61 kg and strain / strain, respectively) and range of production variation indicates that even them are the best clones in terms of this feature.
Gonçalves, Elsa M.F., 1996. Genetic variability Old Vine Grapes, 76p. End of Course Report, I.S.A., Lisbon.

Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with carmine edge weak, strong density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf green with coppery plates, underside with a strong density of prostrate hairs.
Hermaphrodite flowers
Shoots with reddish streaks on the dorsal surface of the nodes and between the nodes, green buds.
Adult leaf large, pentagonal, sub-three lobes; limbo light green, irregular, moderately inflated, with wrinkled, velvety underside with an average density of prostrate hairs erect and strong hair, teeth short and convex; petiole sinus closed in V.
Bunch large, conical with several wings, compact, medium length stems.
Bago short-elliptical, small, yellowish-green, moderately thick film, soft flesh.
Sarmento dark brown.

Behavior
Bud: Late, after nine days 'Fernão Pires'.
Flowering: Mid season, after five days 'Fernão Pires'.
Painter: Late, after 16 days 'Fernão Pires'.
Maturation: Late, after two weeks 'Fernão Pires'.
Erect. Sensitive and escoriose leafhopper ..
Shortly desavinho sensitive.
Vigorous and even the clusters are large, low production, giving a few large bunches per vine, pruning to improve long.
The late maturation results in a harvest usually affected by rot.
It adapts easily to all fields, expressing a requirement in moisture.
Sensitive to rot.

It is a very vigorous variety of upright which takes a general form and depending on the fertility of the soil, the rootstock and nutrition, large vegetative expression.
It has medium to low fertility of the buds of the base and thus requires pruning mixed or long. When subjected to short pruning, fertile soils, assumes a behavior "rebellious" originating release several meters long, not always all sprouted buds and revealing large apical dominance. In this case the output is unbalanced in favor of the vegetation, with consequent reduction in yield.
It is a vine with pruning short or mixed and balanced fertilization (must contain at levels lower applications of nitrogen), satisfactorily produces on average 9.6 tons / ha, despite producing a few clusters of berries and they are kid . These features widen with the use of plant material from the Massal A selection Clone (police).
Although a variety with good adaptation to fresh soil, arid other situations does not reveal special sensitivity to water-stress.
It is moderately susceptible to most diseases and pests that commonly parasitize the vineyard, although there need to pay regular surveillance escoriose the incidences of mildew and rot.
As a rule, should be avoided in large pruning wounds, which this cast can be dangerous and trigger more frequent attacks of diseases of the wood. In the group of white varieties seem to be the most sensitive.
Sometimes there are very sensitive to leafhopper
Requires careful monitoring of the 2nd and 3rd generation moth, assisted with effective treatments.
CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

Potential
Widely cultivated throughout the country, from the Douro to the Alentejo. It is the main grape Bucelas. Produces grape acids and fine wines, good quality, which go well with fish dishes. It is due to its acidity which is also cultivated in the region of Vinho Verde.
Wine extreme, or Bucelas dominated this variety, is an excellent complexion.
Sometimes a little alcohol comes out due to a wrong understanding of what should be the white wine, taking him for a late harvest or unnecessary brandy, a high alcohol content.
Manufacture must be addressed from the beginning, in order to better take advantage of the great features of this caste, which is one of the finest and appropriate for the formation of white wine delicate and aromatic grass, without getting lost under the impression a Note that excessive alcohol just do not let stand his qualities of grace, freshness and perfume.
On the slopes and airy with good sun exposure, Arinto easily reaches an alcohol content from 11 to 12 degrees and a good fixed acidity. It is this balance between alcohol and acidity on the one hand, and primary intensely fruity aromas and citrus fruit that makes wines of this variety are distinguished from the others. These wines have great aging potential, having an interesting development in its first year of life, preserving the aromatic complexity for two or three years, much to the features.
In the event the Arinto wines are very fresh, because of natural acidity, very intense and aromatically. It is perhaps the few white varieties portuguesass with strong personality which leads, by themselves, balanced wines and characteristic.
Clarification of wines is a bit time consuming.

Caste Arinto reveals particularly strong about the wine originates. In fact their musts have very high values ​​in organic acids - total acidity 6.12 g / l - and satisfying richness in sugar - alcohol. Prov. 11 to 12.5% ​​V / V -.
The wines show aromatic particular being very thin and moderately intense, and the flavor is fresh, lively and persistent.
CONTRIBUTION OF REGIONAL DIRECTORATE OF AGRICULTURE of Ribatejo e Oeste (Drar). Louis E. Carvalho, Kátia G. Teixeira, Joao Duarte Melícias, Delfim Madeira. DIVISION VITIVINICULTURE

Selection
It has certified clones.
Characteristics of clones, obtained under the conditions of selection tests.

Arinto B, clone 36 EAN:
Very good income, good alcohol content and medium acidity. Good result in microvinifications.

Arinto B, clone 37 EAN:
Average income, very good acidity and alcohol content lower than average. Good result in microvinifications.

Arinto B, clone 38 EAN:
Income below average, very good alcohol content and total acidity medium. Good result in microvinifications.

Arinto B, clone 39 EAN:
Yield excellent, very good alcohol content and total acidity average. Good result in microvinifications.

Arinto B, clone 40 EAN:
Average income, with good alcohol content and low total acidity. Very good result in microvinifications.

Source: www.iniap.pt

Bical

Features
Caste Bical is typical of the Beiras region, particularly in the area of ​​Bairrada and Dão (which is called "Blur of the Flies" because of the small brown spots that appear on ripe berries). At the time of technological revolution in neighborhoods, in 80 years, it was possible to know all the qualities of the caste Bical. Thus, alongside the Maria Gomes grape variety, the Bical is one of the most important varieties in the region. This variety is early maturing, so their grapes retain enough acidity. It is very resistant to rot, but particularly sensitive to mildew.
Wines produced with this grape is very aromatic, fresh and well structured. Bical variety in the Bairrada is widely used in the production of sparkling wine.
Source: www.infovini.com

Cercial

Features
Caste Cercial is grown in different growing regions. According to the region may adopt different spellings and have slightly different characteristics. Are known Cercial Douro and Dão, Bairrada and the Cerceal Sercial Madeira, also called dog distemper in the Douro. The main characteristics of the varieties of Cercial are the high production and good acidity. This variety produces the famous fortified wine Madeira Sercial, a dry wine that gets old after exceptional features. The varietal wines of this variety are usually a little unbalanced, so it is usual to fill Cercial with other grape varieties such as Bical, Fernão Pires and Malvasia Fina. In these wines, a characteristic inherited from Cercial are the high acidity and delicate aromas. Chardonnay

Source: www.infovini.com

Cercialinho

Small grape leaf, with pentagonal shape. Your bunch and their berries are small, and these form a slightly flattened.

It is an easy grape to grow, in terms of productivity and economic returns. Can usefully give good yields matures early, though thorn too early in cold climates. Its features winemakers cater for the range of winemaking techniques that lends itself: not only a wide range of white wines, but also delicate and even some sparkling sweet white wines of great success, made with the help of Noble Rot.

Source: Station-DRAPCentro Bairrada Wine

Fernão Pires

Features
The Fernão Pires is one of the most planted white grape varieties in Portugal. It's grown in the central and southern areas, especially in the Bairrada (where it is known as Maria Gomes), Estremadura, Ribatejo and Setúbal. The variety Fernão Pires has a very early maturing, so it is one of the first Portuguese grape varieties to be harvested. Also, being very sensitive to frost, it develops best on fertile soils of temperate or warm. This variety has a good alcohol content and a low or medium acidity, so the wines produced with this grape blended or have intense floral aromas.

Source: www.infovini.com
 
 
 
Rabo de Ovelha

 

Source
The genetic heterogeneity of this kind of income is higher in clones derived from the Alentejo, indicating that this region is its sunlight.
Gonçalves, Elsa M.F., 1996. Genetic variability Old Vine Grapes, 76p. End of Course Report, I.S.A., Lisbon.
Data obtained with 28 microsatellites indicate that caste and caste mother 'Cayetana, cultivated mainly in Extremadura, near the Portuguese border. The identification of the offspring increases the possible origin of this caste Alentejo Tail Sheep.
Lopes, M. Shannon, M. Rodrigues dos Santos, JE Eiras-Dias, D. Mendoza, A. Machado House, 2006. Discrimination of Portuguese grapevines based on microsatellite markers. Journal of Biotechnology, 127, 34-44.

Morphology
End of the young branch opened, with crimson edge of medium intensity, medium density of prostrate hairs.
Young leaf yellow-tan tone, the underside with a strong density of prostrate hairs.
Flower: Hermaphrodite
Shoots slightly streaked with red, green buds.
Adult leaf large, wedge-shaped with three lobes; limbo medium green, irregular, slightly bubbly; underside with an average density of prostrate hairs, teeth large and straight; open petiolar sinus, U, and lateral sinus open in V.
Bunch large, cylindrical-conical, compact, long peduncle.
Bago rounded, medium green and yellow, film thickness, medium consistency pulp.
Sarmento dark brown.

Behavior
Bud: Mid season, after six days 'Fernão Pires'.
Flowering: Mid season, after three days 'Fernão Pires'.
Painter: Mid season, after 10 days 'Fernão Pires'.
Maturation: Mid season, one week after the 'Fernão Pires'.
Porte semi-erect. High vigor. Very productive.
Sensitive escoriose, powdery mildew and botrytis.
Very good resistance to desavinho.

Source: www.iniap.pt

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